Wednesday

A Chronology of Easter Week, 32 AD

(Moved from Forgotten Prophets)


Easter! – that happy time of bunnies and eggs, and, uh, parades. And bonnets. I think that’s it. I can’t seem to draw out any other associations with it. Well, Ishtar, but that’s sort of obscure. Oh, and Jesus.

But enough. I won’t go on, about what Easter means. Maybe next year, if I’m alive. But a few years back, I spent my Easter Sunday doing some research. The dates never quite jibed, you see: Good Friday to Easter Sunday morning – Crucifixion to Resurrection – never added up to the three days and three nights that Jesus talked about. I’d heard apologists say that rabbis count the smallest part of a day as a whole day, so the few hours of Friday, all of Saturday, and some pre-dawn hours on Sunday just sort of counted as three days and three nights. My. How rabbinical.

But there were other problems. If Passover was Saturday, then Sunday was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always the day after Passover). No work was allowed on either of these, um, holidays, yet the women rested on Saturday, but went to tend the body on Sunday, like traifniks. And worse, inconsistent. One day they race around trying not to break the law, another, they’re acting just like the goyim. A problem. I won’t however belabor the issue.

A Sabbath is any holy day. A preparation day is any day before a holy day. Confusion arises from the fact that there is a weekly Preparation Day and Sabbath Day – our Friday and Saturday. So you see there can be more than one Sabbath in a week – which to our ears sounds like there can be more than one Saturday in a week. Same with Preparation Day – Friday. There are a number of ancient texts that provide evidence about custom and chronology in this matter - the Didascalia, the Bab Talmud Sanhedrin, the Qumran texts – but I’m not presenting this as a scholarly work.

Cut to the chase: Jesus was crucified on Wednesday, April 9, 32 AD. This was the Preparation Day for Thursday’s Passover, a Sabbath. Friday was the Feast of Unleavened Bread, a Sabbath, and Saturday was … well, it was a Sabbath. There were three Sabbaths, three days of rest, in a row. These three days of rest perfectly match the three days that Jesus’ body rested in the tomb. Kind of works out pretty well, don’t you think? Really sort of symbolic, eh? One might almost say, elegant. Easter Sunday, Resurrecting day, was Firstfruits. Firstfruits. Hm … or should I say, Him.

I should point out that Jesus most likely rose not on Sunday morning, but Saturday evening - perhaps even Saturday at 3 pm. Do the math. 72 hours. Not necessary, but Sunday starts, for the Jews, Saturday night. Pretty embarrassing for Jesus, if they came into the tomb at a lawful time, first opportunity after the Sabbath, to find him still dead. I guess pretty embarrassing for the ladies, too, busy with their spices and he comes back to life. In any case, it really doesn't matter, a lot, that Good Friday is observed as Crucifixion Day. It isn't about days of observances, after all. But there are those who delight in what appear to them to be inconsistencies. For their correction and for their sake, accuracy matters.

So here’s one of my incomprehensible tables, which always look so good in my own computer but end up all distorted when I post them. Lo siento. It is a complete chronology of Easter Week, with relevant correlations to other biblical events. I do a bit of Greek, but only in passing. Enjoy!


J



Nisan


Nisan, 32 ad, Jesus age 35


April

8

[To clarify differences in timekeeping, shaded areas indi­cate night, clear areas indicate day­light]

Day of Preparation

4

Fri­day


Jesus comes from Ephraim, arrives at Bethany "six days before Passover" (Jn 12:1).




9

Anointing (Jn 12:1-; Mt 26:6; Mk 14).

Sabbath

5

Sat­ur­day


Judas conspires (Mt 26:14; Mk 14:10; Lk 22:1).




10

"on the next day" (Jn 12:12)


6

Sun­day


Palm Sunday

Lamb in­spec­ted



11



7

Mon­day


Fig tree cursed (Mk 11:12-; Mt 21:18),

temple cleaned; Ser­mon (Jn 12:20-50)




12



8

Tues­day


Figs withered (Mk 11:20-25, Mt 21:20); Parables (Mk 11:27-; Mt 21:23‑; Lk 20:1‑19); Taxes (Mt 22; Mk 12:1; Lk 20:20); Ressurection ques­tions (Mk 12, Mt 22, Lk 20:27); Greatest command (Mt 22:34; Mk 12:28, ‘no more ques­tions’); about messiah (Mt 22, ‘no more ques­tions’; Mk 12; Lk 20:41); denounce (Mt 23; Mk 12; Lk 20); Widow's mite (Mk 12; Lk 21); end times (Mt 24‑25; Mk 13; Lk 21);

finish — Passover is "two days away" (Mt 26:2; Mk 14:1).

In Tem­ple




Before ‘First day of Feast of Unleavened Bread, when lamb is sac­ri­ficed’ (Lk 22:7)

[not ‘arrived’ but ‘approached’, re ‘came’, Vines, p. 108, #1, 2064; see Lk 15:20,25; in Mt 26:17; Mk 14:12, no ‘on’, dative article = ‘regarding, with respect to’ Greek to Me, p. 185; Greenlee, p. 28; see Rom 4:20)];

"arrest Him but not during Feast" (Mt 26:5; Mk 14:2); "Go prepare" (Mt 26:18)

Mount of Olives



13

"after dark" (Mt 26:20), "Before the Passover Feast" (Jn 13:1);

Feet washed, Last Supper (Judas, Farewell) garden, arrest.

Trials:

Priest's house, Annas (Lk 22:54; Jn 18:12);

Sanhedrin, Caiaphas, mocked (Mt 26:57; Mk 14:53; Jn 18:24);

Sanhedrin, "very early" (Mk 15:1); "daybreak" (Lk 22:66);

Preparation Day of Pass­over

9

Wed­nes­day


Pilate's Palace, "early morning, Passover meal not yet eaten" (Jn 18:28);

Herod (Lk 23:7-11);

Pilate (-16), Barabbas, beating (Jn 19:1-16), public.

"Preparation Day of Passover Week [not of weekly sabbath], 6th hour, 6 a.m." (Jn 19:14); Si­mon in from field;

Crucifixion "at 3rd hour, 9 a.m." (Mk 15:25); "noon to three, dark" (Lk 23:44);

Death 3 p.m. (Mk 15:34).

Evening approached, Preparation before [Passover] Sabbath (Mk 15:42);

to Pilate; linen bought (Mk 15:46); women prepared spices (Lk 23:56);

"Preparation day, [Passover] Sabbath about to begin" (Lk 23:54; Jn 19:42), tomb

Day the Passover Lamb is sacri­fice



14

tomb

Passover


10

Thursday


"next day, after Preparation" (Mt 27:62);

Guards; Women rest (Lk 23:56)

(Egypt

plun­dered)



15

Feast of Unlea­vened Bread (15th, Lev 23:39, Ex 12:18) no work (Lev 23:7; Ex 12:16), end of 14th / start of 15th

(Hebrews left Egypt)

11

Friday


[Weekly] Preparation Day




16

Sabbath


12

Saturday


"just as Jonah was 3 days and 3 nights" (Mt 12:40; Jonah 1:17); "after (μετα) 3 days" (Mk 8:31); see Mt 27:40 "in 3 days", Jn 2:19 ‘εv’ = "in the course of", see Arndt, p. 260, II.a.




17

Resurrection

"when the Sabbaths were over" 3 women buy spices (Mt 28:1, Mk 16:1) — more than one “sabbath” that week;

(Ark rests -

Gen 8:4)

13

Sunday


came to tomb, dawn of first of the week (Mk 16:2);

empty tomb;

"this is the third day since all this happened" (Lk 24:21 - "since all" includes Passover and placing guards on Thursday – so Sunday is the “third day”; indeed, nothing happened Friday or Saturday – days of rest).

Firstfruits

(Lev 23:11)

1Cor 15:20‑23









18 Comments:

At June 11, 2006, Blogger Jack H said...

Again for clarification, I'll point out the very obvious fact that Lk 3:1 tells us John the Baptist started his ministry in the 15th year of Tiberius. Tiberius came to the throne of Rome when Augustus died in August of 14 AD. The fifteenth year after this started in 29 AD. So John the Baptist started preaching in late 29 or early 30 AD. Further, the Gospel of John reports three Passovers that Jesus spent in Jerusalem as an adult. This brings us to 32 AD - the year with three consecutive Sabbaths.

Why was there ever any confusion in this matter?


J

 
At June 12, 2006, Blogger Jack H said...

I should also point out that the calculation of ancient dates is by no means a straightforward affair. Sources are usually unclear as to their frame of reference, Julian or Gregorian, and the Hebrew calendar is confusing even to those familiar with it. Online calendar calculators will yeild contradictory results, because different assumptions have been programmed in.

http://www.abdicate.net/cal.aspx

http://www.csgnetwork.com/juliancountdaysfromtocalc.html

Thus the following is not confirmed by such tools:

"A most compelling Biblical Prophecy is found in Daniel, chapter 9, verse 25. Written 500 years before the birth of Jesus Christ (the oldest preserved copy dating 200 years before the birth of Christ), it foretells the very day Christ would enter Jerusalem. The prophecy states: 69 weeks of years (69 x 7 = 483 years) would pass from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem, until the coming of the Messiah. This is according to the Babylonian 360-day calendar, since Daniel was written in Babylon during the Jewish captivity after the fall of Jerusalem. Thus, 483 years x 360 days = 173,880 days. According to records found by Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson in the Shushan (Susa) Palace, and confirmed in Nehemiah 2:1, this decree was made on March 14th, 445 BC, by Artaxerxes Longimanus. Exactly 173,880 days later, on April 6th, 32 AD, Jesus Christ rode into Jerusalem upon a colt (fulfilling the prophecy in Zechariah 9:9). The world celebrates this day as Palm Sunday." http://www.allabouttruth.org/Biblical-Prophecy.htm

J

 
At July 23, 2008, Blogger Mike said...

The synchronizing of the dates of April and those of Nisan are off by one day. Nisan 14 (Passover) is April 10, not April 9. Jesus Christ died on a Thursday, not Wednesday. Bump the April dates by one and you have it right.

 
At July 23, 2008, Blogger Jack H said...

You seem not to have followed the thread of my logic here. Rather than a simple assertion, Thursday not Wednesday, what is your reasoning? Where is the flaw in mine? I spelled it out in some fair amount of detail. Your contrary evidence?

 
At May 13, 2009, Blogger jjt said...

A fairly detailed discussion of the Festal observances as supported by first century Jewish sources may be found at:

http://www.mortalresurrection.com/2009/05/09/reconciling-the-eyewitness-accounts/

 
At March 22, 2010, Blogger Tenn Irish said...

A really interesting thing for me is that Sejanus was thrown down some stairs to his death in October of 31. Without Sejanus to back him up in his attacks on the Jews, Pilate began to try to follow the pro-Jewish policies of Tiberius, who came out of semi-retirement to put down Sejanus. This is the only way to understand Pilate's reluctance to crucify Jesus. It argues well for 32 as the correct date of the Passion Week. Pilate seems to have owed his office to Sejanus, who persecuted the Jews.

 
At January 27, 2012, Blogger Jack H said...

Shared from a private email:

> Very interesting article.
> Please consider that the feasts of God are a dress rehearsal for events that they foreshadow. Therefore since the first 3 feasts were fulfilled on the very day of the feast in Christ's first coming, the feast of weeks fulfilled on the very day of Pentecost, and the 3 fall feast fulfilled on His second coming, then the only possibility is that Christ, being the Passover Lamb, could only occur in the very day of Passover. 14th of Nissan.
> Be blessed.
>
MP [name withheld]

And my response:

Excellent point. And a little troubling. Deut 16:6 says the sacrifice is at the going down of the sun. But JC died at 3 pm. So the symbolism has to be approximate, rather than exact. Oh well. Good enough. There was a great darkness at the Crucifiction, which may count ... God does odd things, sometimes. There's evidence from the Qumran documents that Passover was always on a Wednesday ... don't remember the details. In any case, it's a bottomless well of riches.

Best,

Jack

 
At January 27, 2012, Blogger Jack H said...

Continued:


Subject: Re: Timetable of crucifixion.

Thanks for taking the time to reply. I cannot be certain of your meaning with regard to the day of Christ's sacrifice to be in agreement with the Passover Nisan 14 or not. However, in addition, to follow up on your point regarding the time of His sacrifice. I have done much research on this and there is quite widespread agreement that Deut 16:6 was in fact referring to just that time ... 3 in the afternoon was when the lamb was slain in the alter and the shofar was blown. Mark Biltz, a messianic Jew has an excellent video presentation on this very question as well
Blessings.

MP


And my response:

Greetings again --

It's been years since I've looked at these sorts of issue, and all my tools are packed away, so I can't examine the Hebrew. I've just looked at various translations, and some say "sunset", some "as the sun is going down." They are not the same thing, but no need to distress oneself. I tend to be a bit literal, and traditions and rabbinical agreement carries less weight with me than the black letter of the words -- always bearing in mind that words are meant to convey their spirit.

Jack Finegan has a venerable book on chronology,
http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Biblical-Chronology-Principles-Reckoning/dp/1565631439

and it is from there that I think I got the info re variability on when Passover was celebrated. Seems like a bit of data I would have communicated, somewhere in these blogged writings.

Seems like a salient point, however, that if the lamb is sacrificed at any time before sunset, it is sacrificed on the day BEFORE Passover ... since each day ends at sunset, and Passover starts at sunset. If the lamb were sacrificed on Passover proper, daylight, then the meal, in the post-sunset evening, would be the next day, after Passover. Thus, a Wednesday sacrifice/Crucifixion (at 3 pm), a Thursday Passover (some 4 or so hours later), a Friday Feast of Unleavened Bread, a Saturday weekly sabbath, and a Sunday Firstfruits. Viewed this way, I retract my "a little troubling".

Regards,

Jack H

 
At February 06, 2012, Anonymous Tonya said...

Thank you so much for this post. This confirms my study. It was a Wednesday crucifixion and all of this can be confirmed in the pages of the Bible.

Thursday-Jesus arrives in Bethany-6 days before Passover (John 12:1)
Friday-Palm Branches are used by the people as they welcome Jesus as he enters the city on a donkey (John 12:12)
Saturday
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday-Passover-Jesus was crucified (9AM), died (3PM) and was buried before 6PM. (John 19:31) (Matthew 27:32-53)
Thursday-Special Sabbath (John 19:31)
Friday-They prepared Spices for the body (Luke 23:56)
Saturday-Sabbath (Luke 23:56) 3 Days ends here- RESURRECTION DAY-
Sunday- The first [day] of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
(John 20:1)

When Mary got there on Sunday (it was yet dark) and Jesus was already gone.

Daniel 9:27 (NIV)
27 He will confirm a covenant with many for one ‘seven.’In the middle of the ‘seven’ he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And at the temple[c] he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him.”

Now the middle of the week is Wednesday.

Reference commentary by Barnes on this verse in Daniel for a very interesting point:

(1) The first inquiry then, is, What is the fair meaning of the language? Or what would one who had a correct knowledge of the proper principles of interpretation understand by this? Now, in regard to this, while it may be admitted, perhaps, that there would be some liability to a difference of view in interpreting it with no reference to the event, or no shaping of its meaning by the event, the following things seem to be clear:

(a) that the "one week," would comprise seven years, immediately succeeding the appearance of the Messiah, or the sixty-two weeks, and that there was something which he would do in "confirming the covenant," or in establishing the principles of religion, which would extend through that period of seven years, or that that would be, in some proper sense, "a period" of time, having a beginning - to wit, his appearing, and some proper close or termination at the end of the seven years: that is, that there would be some reason why that should be a marked period, or why the whole should terminate there, and not at some other time.

God Bless,
Tonya

 
At February 06, 2012, Anonymous Tonya said...

Barnes Commentary Cont.

(b) That in the middle of that period of seven years, another important event would occur, serving to divide that time into two portions, and especially to be known as causing the sacrifice and oblation to cease; in some way affecting the public offering of sacrifice, so that from that time there would be in fact a cessation.

(Sorry, I cut the last post a bit short.)

 
At February 07, 2012, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Except we do call it Palm Sunday for a reason. It was a Sunday. Should be in the chart.

 
At August 09, 2012, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Thanks for your work. I have a question....

How do we know that Nisan 14,of our solar year 32 AD was April 9th? I have seen websites that state Nisan 14, 32AD was on Monday, April 14th: http://www.judaismvschristianity.com/Passover_dates.htm

Also, I went to this website: http://www.hebcal.com/converter/?gd=12&gm=4&gy=32&g2h=Convert+Gregorian+to+Hebrew+date When you enter "April 12, 32 and hit convert "Gregorian to Hebrew date", this answer comes up: 12 April 0032 = 14th of Nisan, 3792.

So, you say Nisan 14, 32 AD was Wed, April 9th....someone else says it was Monday, April 14th....and this last site says it was April 12th (it doesn't provide a day).

Please take a look at this and let me know.

Thanks - Jonathan

 
At March 29, 2013, Blogger Jeff said...

I have the same dates on my timeline. But I have trouble verifying the days of the week. So many calendar converters come back with different resutls.

However, I think it was Thursday...Nisan 14, 32 AD. Preparation day is NOT a sabbath. Nisan 15 is the "sacared assembly" (Lev 23:7), the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread and is the "sabbath" that was coming.

In addition, Lamb is slaughtered on the 14th at twilight (Ex 12:6; Lev 23:5). Jesus, the Lamb, must have been crucified on the 14th. Thursday crucifiction to Sunday resurrection also fits perfectly the Sign of Jonah (Matt 12:40).

That puts the Last Supper on Wednesday night, Jesus over to Pilot Thursday morning (before the Passover) (John 18:28) and the Passover meal on Thursday evening AFTER twilight when the lamb was killed.

 
At March 29, 2013, Blogger Jeff said...

Where did you validate the Hebrew dates...so many tools online come back with different dates?

 
At March 31, 2013, Blogger Jack H said...

Jeff: Online tools aren't useful when they don't list the parameters of their assumptions. Look at Jack Finegan, cited above.

I don't believe I've implied that Prep Day is a Sabbath. Of course it cannot be, by definition -- if it were, it would need a preparation day for itself.

You can see why I've settled on Wednesday. Two days is not three days, and Jesus said three days, and nights. We must not love our theories more than we love plain speaking. All of thurs, fri and sat are three days. A tight 72 hours. Elegant.

You seem not to have followed my reasoning. I state that Nis 15 is the first day of the F of U. That is the second of the three consecutive Sabbaths that kept the women away from the tomb -- Passover, Feast of U, weekly sabbath.

I say plainly in the chart that the 14th is the Day the Passover Lamb is sacrificed. A Wednesday.

Thurs to Sun does not fit perfectly. Sundown Wednesday to Sundown Saturday does. Remember, Jews start day at soundown. When the women got to the tombe, BEFORE SUNUP on Sunday, the tomb was already empty. Jesus did not rise at sunup. We don't know when, but it was before that, so sometime during the dark. It's not about tradition, it's about text and testimony.

Sunday, Palms
Mon and Tues, preaching
Wedn (Tues night to us), Last Supper
Wed daylight, death
Thur Passover
Fri Feast of Unl
Sat sabbath
Sat night resurreciton

Big confusion because Jews start day at sundown, Romans (and us) at midnight

 
At March 31, 2013, Blogger Jack H said...

It's a bit exasperating:

"At February 07, 2012, Anonymous said... Except we do call it Palm Sunday for a reason. It was a Sunday. Should be in the chart."

IT IS ON THE CHART.

Work with me, people.

 
At April 28, 2013, Blogger Jim Patch said...

Much of your effort seems to be based on the absolute, precise historical accuracy of John's Gospel. And since I love the Bible, want to understand and obey it, and am willing to help others do so, too, I am not attempting to be contrary. Rather, I just want to discover your insight regarding a few things. So, please clarify these.
Mark 15:25 says, "It was the third hour when they crucified him." And in John 19: 13 - 18, Jesus is crucified after the sixth hour. How are both times possible? Also, in Mt, Mk and Lk, Jesus "cleanses the Temple" during the last week of his life. However, in John's Gospel this event takes place early in his ministry (as recorded in John 2.)
Other examples can be made, but help with these would be appreciated. And, I am aware of the theory that states that Jesus cleansed the temple twice. This, however, seems unlikely. John simply uses history differently than the other Gospels. Still, I would like your take on this. Thank you.

 
At May 02, 2013, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Greetings Jim --

Cut to the chase, we still use the Roman day, with a 12 midnight and a 12 noon, day starting at night. Odd, doesn't it seem?

Jews started the day at sundown. Odd, also.

John use using the Roman system, and Mark the Jewish. So Mark's very early at the Sanhedrin is Luke's daybreak; John's Roman 6th hour was 6 am, before Pilate; Mark's Jewish 3rd hour was 9am, 3 hours after sunup (12 hour clock starting from sunup/down, rather than Roman's midnight noon.) This is pretty well known stuff, not some ad hoc invention. Take another look at the chart, above. It's laid out there.


John is silent about the cleansing of that week. It would have occurred between Jn 20:19 and :20. Why is he silent? Well, not everything can be said, of course. Of course, silence is not contradiction. And total agreement of point of view indicates collusion of witnesses. These are obvious exegetical principles.

There are lots of things we don't know, aren't told, and don't understand. I'm looking now at God's harshness, in 1Sam. We are pawns. Somehow, this is love. I don't get it.

J

 

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