A Chronology of Easter Week, 32 AD

[Dec, 2015 -- Okay, it IS getting embarrassing.  In Nov I reworked the dating for a 30 AD Easter, because  online calendar converters gave this year as allowing a Wednesday Crucifixion -- which given the theory outlined here is most desirable.  But I had forgotten Luke's data, regarding the 15th year of Tiberius, which allows for no sooner a start for John's baptizing ministry than 28 AD (the "15th year" is 14 full years and into the next.)  So I've changed it back. The data allow most reasonably for a 31 or 32 AD Easter, depending on John's Gospel, with three or four Passovers.

Perhaps theory will have to bow to implacable computer programs. Or perhaps the older calculations, as of Jack Finegan, are correct. Or maybe there's some imponderable at work.]


Some years back, now, I spent my Easter Sunday doing some research. The dates never quite jibed, you see: Good Friday to Easter Sunday morning – Crucifixion to Resurrection – never added up to the three days and three nights that Jesus talked about. I’d heard apologists say that rabbis count the smallest part of a day as a whole day, so the few hours of Friday, all of Saturday, and some pre-dawn hours on Sunday just sort of counted as three days and three nights. My. How rabbinical.

But there were other problems. If Passover was Saturday, then Sunday was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always the day after Passover). No work was allowed on either of these, um, holidays, yet the women rested on Saturday, but went to tend the body on Sunday, like traifniks. And worse, inconsistent. One day they race around trying not to break the law, another, they’re acting just like the goyim. A problem. I won’t however belabor the issue.

A Sabbath is any holy day. A preparation day is any day before a holy day. Confusion arises from the fact that there is a weekly Preparation Day and Sabbath Day – our Friday and Saturday. So you see there can be more than one Sabbath in a week – which to our ears sounds like there can be more than one Saturday in a week. Same with Preparation Day – Friday. There are a number of ancient texts that provide evidence about custom and chronology in this matter - the Didascalia, the Bab Talmud Sanhedrin, the Qumran texts – but I’m not presenting this as a scholarly work.

Cut to the chase: Jesus was crucified on Wednesday, April  9, 32. This was the Preparation Day for Thursday’s Passover, a Sabbath. Friday was the Feast of Unleavened Bread, a Sabbath, and Saturday was … well, it was a Sabbath. There were three Sabbaths, three days of rest, in a row. These three days of rest perfectly match the three days that Jesus’ body rested in the tomb. Kind of works out pretty well, don’t you think? Really sort of symbolic, eh? One might almost say, elegant. Easter Sunday, Resurrecting day, was Firstfruits. Firstfruits. Hm … or should I say, Him.

I should point out that Jesus most likely rose not on Sunday morning, but Saturday evening - perhaps even Saturday at 3 pm. Do the math. 72 hours. Not necessary, but Sunday starts, for the Jews, Saturday at sundown. Pretty embarrassing for all parties, if they came with their spices into the tomb at a lawful time, first opportunity after the Sabbath, to find him still dead. In any case, it really doesn't matter, a lot, that Good Friday is observed as Crucifixion Day. It isn't about days of observances, after all. But there are those who delight in what appear to them to be inconsistencies. For their correction and for their sake, accuracy matters.

More recently -- that is, my subjective now -- I've been writing on the life of Jesus, chronologically,
some very interesting data fall out, re typology etc.  Easter Week specifically commences with the section on "Winter, 31/32 AD".

So here’s one of my nearly incomprehensible tables, which always look so good in my own computer but end up all distorted when I post them. Lo siento. It is a complete chronology of Easter Week, with relevant correlations to other biblical events. I do a bit of Greek, but only in passing. Enjoy!



Nisan, 32 AD  , Jesus age 36

[To clarify differences in timekeeping, shaded areas indi­cate night, clear areas indicate day­light]
Day of Preparation

Jesus comes from Ephraim, arrives at Bethany "six days before Passover" (Jn 12:1).

Anointing (Jn 12:1-; Mt 26:6; Mk 14).

Judas conspires (Mt 26:14; Mk 14:10; Lk 22:1).

"on the next day" (Jn 12:12)


Palm Sunday
Lamb in­spec­ted



Fig tree cursed (Mk 11:12-; Mt 21:18),
temple cleaned; Ser­mon (Jn 12:20-50)



Figs withered (Mk 11:20-25, Mt 21:20); Parables (Mk 11:27-; Mt 21:23‑; Lk 20:1‑19); Taxes (Mt 22; Mk 12:1; Lk 20:20); Ressurection ques­tions (Mk 12, Mt 22, Lk 20:27); Greatest command (Mt 22:34; Mk 12:28, ‘no more ques­tions’); about messiah (Mt 22, ‘no more ques­tions’; Mk 12; Lk 20:41); denounce (Mt 23; Mk 12; Lk 20); Widow's mite (Mk 12; Lk 21); end times (Mt 24‑25; Mk 13; Lk 21);
finish — Passover is "two days away" (Mt 26:2; Mk 14:1).
In Tem­ple

Before ‘First day of Feast of Unleavened Bread, when lamb is sac­ri­ficed’ (Lk 22:7)
[not ‘arrived’ but ‘approached’, re ‘came’, Vines, p. 108, #1, 2064; see Lk 15:20,25; in Mt 26:17; Mk 14:12, no ‘on’, dative article = ‘regarding, with respect to’ Greek to Me, p. 185; Greenlee, p. 28; see Rom 4:20)];
"arrest Him but not during Feast" (Mt 26:5; Mk 14:2); "Go prepare" (Mt 26:18)
Mount of Olives

"after dark" (Mt 26:20), "Before the Passover Feast" (Jn 13:1);
Feet washed, Last Supper (Judas, Farewell) garden, arrest.
Priest's house, Annas (Lk 22:54; Jn 18:12);
Sanhedrin, Caiaphas, mocked (Mt 26:57; Mk 14:53; Jn 18:24);
Sanhedrin, "very early" (Mk 15:1); "daybreak" (Lk 22:66);
Preparation Day of Pass­over

Pilate's Palace, "early morning, Passover meal not yet eaten" (Jn 18:28);
Herod (Lk 23:7-11);
Pilate (-16), Barabbas, beating (Jn 19:1-16), public.
"Preparation Day of Passover Week [not of weekly sabbath], 6th hour, 6 a.m." (Jn 19:14); Si­mon in from field;
Crucifixion "at 3rd hour, 9 a.m." (Mk 15:25); "noon to three, dark" (Lk 23:44);
Death 3 p.m. (Mk 15:34).
Evening approached, Preparation before [Passover] Sabbath (Mk 15:42);
to Pilate; linen bought (Mk 15:46); women prepared spices (Lk 23:56);
"Preparation day, [Passover] Sabbath about to begin" (Lk 23:54; Jn 19:42), tomb
Day the Passover Lamb is sacri­fice



"next day, after Preparation" (Mt 27:62);
Guards; Women rest (Lk 23:56)

Feast of Unlea­vened Bread (15th, Lev 23:39, Ex 12:18) no work (Lev 23:7; Ex 12:16), end of 14th / start of 15th
(Hebrews left Egypt)

[Weekly] Preparation Day



"just as Jonah was 3 days and 3 nights" (Mt 12:40; Jonah 1:17); "after (μετα) 3 days" (Mk 8:31); see Mt 27:40 "in 3 days", Jn 2:19 ‘εv’ = "in the course of", see Arndt, p. 260, II.a.

"when the Sabbaths were over" 3 women buy spices (Mt 28:1, Mk 16:1) — more than one “sabbath” that week;
(Ark rests -
Gen 8:4)

came to tomb, dawn of first of the week (Mk 16:2);
empty tomb;
"this is the third day since all this happened" (Lk 24:21 - "since all" includes Passover and placing guards on Thursday – so Sunday is the “third day”; indeed, nothing happened Friday or Saturday – days of rest).
(Lev 23:11)
1Cor 15:20‑23


At June 11, 2006, Blogger Jack H said...

Again for clarification, I'll point out the very obvious fact that Lk 3:1 tells us John the Baptist started his ministry in the 15th year of Tiberius. Tiberius came to the throne of Rome when Augustus died in August of 14 AD. The fifteenth year after this started in 29 AD. So John the Baptist started preaching in late 29 or early 30 AD. Further, the Gospel of John reports three Passovers that Jesus spent in Jerusalem as an adult. This brings us to 32 AD - the year with three consecutive Sabbaths.

Why was there ever any confusion in this matter?


At June 12, 2006, Blogger Jack H said...

I should also point out that the calculation of ancient dates is by no means a straightforward affair. Sources are usually unclear as to their frame of reference, Julian or Gregorian, and the Hebrew calendar is confusing even to those familiar with it. Online calendar calculators will yeild contradictory results, because different assumptions have been programmed in.

Thus the following is not confirmed by such tools:

"A most compelling Biblical Prophecy is found in Daniel, chapter 9, verse 25. Written 500 years before the birth of Jesus Christ (the oldest preserved copy dating 200 years before the birth of Christ), it foretells the very day Christ would enter Jerusalem. The prophecy states: 69 weeks of years (69 x 7 = 483 years) would pass from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem, until the coming of the Messiah. This is according to the Babylonian 360-day calendar, since Daniel was written in Babylon during the Jewish captivity after the fall of Jerusalem. Thus, 483 years x 360 days = 173,880 days. According to records found by Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson in the Shushan (Susa) Palace, and confirmed in Nehemiah 2:1, this decree was made on March 14th, 445 BC, by Artaxerxes Longimanus. Exactly 173,880 days later, on April 6th, 32 AD, Jesus Christ rode into Jerusalem upon a colt (fulfilling the prophecy in Zechariah 9:9). The world celebrates this day as Palm Sunday."


At July 23, 2008, Blogger Mike said...

The synchronizing of the dates of April and those of Nisan are off by one day. Nisan 14 (Passover) is April 10, not April 9. Jesus Christ died on a Thursday, not Wednesday. Bump the April dates by one and you have it right.

At July 23, 2008, Blogger Jack H said...

You seem not to have followed the thread of my logic here. Rather than a simple assertion, Thursday not Wednesday, what is your reasoning? Where is the flaw in mine? I spelled it out in some fair amount of detail. Your contrary evidence?

At May 13, 2009, Blogger jjt said...

A fairly detailed discussion of the Festal observances as supported by first century Jewish sources may be found at:

At March 22, 2010, Blogger Tenn Irish said...

A really interesting thing for me is that Sejanus was thrown down some stairs to his death in October of 31. Without Sejanus to back him up in his attacks on the Jews, Pilate began to try to follow the pro-Jewish policies of Tiberius, who came out of semi-retirement to put down Sejanus. This is the only way to understand Pilate's reluctance to crucify Jesus. It argues well for 32 as the correct date of the Passion Week. Pilate seems to have owed his office to Sejanus, who persecuted the Jews.

At January 27, 2012, Blogger Jack H said...

Shared from a private email:

> Very interesting article.
> Please consider that the feasts of God are a dress rehearsal for events that they foreshadow. Therefore since the first 3 feasts were fulfilled on the very day of the feast in Christ's first coming, the feast of weeks fulfilled on the very day of Pentecost, and the 3 fall feast fulfilled on His second coming, then the only possibility is that Christ, being the Passover Lamb, could only occur in the very day of Passover. 14th of Nissan.
> Be blessed.
MP [name withheld]

And my response:

Excellent point. And a little troubling. Deut 16:6 says the sacrifice is at the going down of the sun. But JC died at 3 pm. So the symbolism has to be approximate, rather than exact. Oh well. Good enough. There was a great darkness at the Crucifiction, which may count ... God does odd things, sometimes. There's evidence from the Qumran documents that Passover was always on a Wednesday ... don't remember the details. In any case, it's a bottomless well of riches.



At January 27, 2012, Blogger Jack H said...


Subject: Re: Timetable of crucifixion.

Thanks for taking the time to reply. I cannot be certain of your meaning with regard to the day of Christ's sacrifice to be in agreement with the Passover Nisan 14 or not. However, in addition, to follow up on your point regarding the time of His sacrifice. I have done much research on this and there is quite widespread agreement that Deut 16:6 was in fact referring to just that time ... 3 in the afternoon was when the lamb was slain in the alter and the shofar was blown. Mark Biltz, a messianic Jew has an excellent video presentation on this very question as well


And my response:

Greetings again --

It's been years since I've looked at these sorts of issue, and all my tools are packed away, so I can't examine the Hebrew. I've just looked at various translations, and some say "sunset", some "as the sun is going down." They are not the same thing, but no need to distress oneself. I tend to be a bit literal, and traditions and rabbinical agreement carries less weight with me than the black letter of the words -- always bearing in mind that words are meant to convey their spirit.

Jack Finegan has a venerable book on chronology,

and it is from there that I think I got the info re variability on when Passover was celebrated. Seems like a bit of data I would have communicated, somewhere in these blogged writings.

Seems like a salient point, however, that if the lamb is sacrificed at any time before sunset, it is sacrificed on the day BEFORE Passover ... since each day ends at sunset, and Passover starts at sunset. If the lamb were sacrificed on Passover proper, daylight, then the meal, in the post-sunset evening, would be the next day, after Passover. Thus, a Wednesday sacrifice/Crucifixion (at 3 pm), a Thursday Passover (some 4 or so hours later), a Friday Feast of Unleavened Bread, a Saturday weekly sabbath, and a Sunday Firstfruits. Viewed this way, I retract my "a little troubling".


Jack H

At February 06, 2012, Anonymous Tonya said...

Thank you so much for this post. This confirms my study. It was a Wednesday crucifixion and all of this can be confirmed in the pages of the Bible.

Thursday-Jesus arrives in Bethany-6 days before Passover (John 12:1)
Friday-Palm Branches are used by the people as they welcome Jesus as he enters the city on a donkey (John 12:12)
Wednesday-Passover-Jesus was crucified (9AM), died (3PM) and was buried before 6PM. (John 19:31) (Matthew 27:32-53)
Thursday-Special Sabbath (John 19:31)
Friday-They prepared Spices for the body (Luke 23:56)
Saturday-Sabbath (Luke 23:56) 3 Days ends here- RESURRECTION DAY-
Sunday- The first [day] of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
(John 20:1)

When Mary got there on Sunday (it was yet dark) and Jesus was already gone.

Daniel 9:27 (NIV)
27 He will confirm a covenant with many for one ‘seven.’In the middle of the ‘seven’ he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And at the temple[c] he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him.”

Now the middle of the week is Wednesday.

Reference commentary by Barnes on this verse in Daniel for a very interesting point:

(1) The first inquiry then, is, What is the fair meaning of the language? Or what would one who had a correct knowledge of the proper principles of interpretation understand by this? Now, in regard to this, while it may be admitted, perhaps, that there would be some liability to a difference of view in interpreting it with no reference to the event, or no shaping of its meaning by the event, the following things seem to be clear:

(a) that the "one week," would comprise seven years, immediately succeeding the appearance of the Messiah, or the sixty-two weeks, and that there was something which he would do in "confirming the covenant," or in establishing the principles of religion, which would extend through that period of seven years, or that that would be, in some proper sense, "a period" of time, having a beginning - to wit, his appearing, and some proper close or termination at the end of the seven years: that is, that there would be some reason why that should be a marked period, or why the whole should terminate there, and not at some other time.

God Bless,

At February 06, 2012, Anonymous Tonya said...

Barnes Commentary Cont.

(b) That in the middle of that period of seven years, another important event would occur, serving to divide that time into two portions, and especially to be known as causing the sacrifice and oblation to cease; in some way affecting the public offering of sacrifice, so that from that time there would be in fact a cessation.

(Sorry, I cut the last post a bit short.)

At February 07, 2012, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Except we do call it Palm Sunday for a reason. It was a Sunday. Should be in the chart.

At August 09, 2012, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Thanks for your work. I have a question....

How do we know that Nisan 14,of our solar year 32 AD was April 9th? I have seen websites that state Nisan 14, 32AD was on Monday, April 14th:

Also, I went to this website: When you enter "April 12, 32 and hit convert "Gregorian to Hebrew date", this answer comes up: 12 April 0032 = 14th of Nisan, 3792.

So, you say Nisan 14, 32 AD was Wed, April 9th....someone else says it was Monday, April 14th....and this last site says it was April 12th (it doesn't provide a day).

Please take a look at this and let me know.

Thanks - Jonathan

At March 29, 2013, Blogger Jeff said...

I have the same dates on my timeline. But I have trouble verifying the days of the week. So many calendar converters come back with different resutls.

However, I think it was Thursday...Nisan 14, 32 AD. Preparation day is NOT a sabbath. Nisan 15 is the "sacared assembly" (Lev 23:7), the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread and is the "sabbath" that was coming.

In addition, Lamb is slaughtered on the 14th at twilight (Ex 12:6; Lev 23:5). Jesus, the Lamb, must have been crucified on the 14th. Thursday crucifiction to Sunday resurrection also fits perfectly the Sign of Jonah (Matt 12:40).

That puts the Last Supper on Wednesday night, Jesus over to Pilot Thursday morning (before the Passover) (John 18:28) and the Passover meal on Thursday evening AFTER twilight when the lamb was killed.

At March 29, 2013, Blogger Jeff said...

Where did you validate the Hebrew many tools online come back with different dates?

At March 31, 2013, Blogger Jack H said...

Jeff: Online tools aren't useful when they don't list the parameters of their assumptions. Look at Jack Finegan, cited above.

I don't believe I've implied that Prep Day is a Sabbath. Of course it cannot be, by definition -- if it were, it would need a preparation day for itself.

You can see why I've settled on Wednesday. Two days is not three days, and Jesus said three days, and nights. We must not love our theories more than we love plain speaking. All of thurs, fri and sat are three days. A tight 72 hours. Elegant.

You seem not to have followed my reasoning. I state that Nis 15 is the first day of the F of U. That is the second of the three consecutive Sabbaths that kept the women away from the tomb -- Passover, Feast of U, weekly sabbath.

I say plainly in the chart that the 14th is the Day the Passover Lamb is sacrificed. A Wednesday.

Thurs to Sun does not fit perfectly. Sundown Wednesday to Sundown Saturday does. Remember, Jews start day at soundown. When the women got to the tombe, BEFORE SUNUP on Sunday, the tomb was already empty. Jesus did not rise at sunup. We don't know when, but it was before that, so sometime during the dark. It's not about tradition, it's about text and testimony.

Sunday, Palms
Mon and Tues, preaching
Wedn (Tues night to us), Last Supper
Wed daylight, death
Thur Passover
Fri Feast of Unl
Sat sabbath
Sat night resurreciton

Big confusion because Jews start day at sundown, Romans (and us) at midnight

At March 31, 2013, Blogger Jack H said...

It's a bit exasperating:

"At February 07, 2012, Anonymous said... Except we do call it Palm Sunday for a reason. It was a Sunday. Should be in the chart."


Work with me, people.

At April 28, 2013, Blogger Jim Patch said...

Much of your effort seems to be based on the absolute, precise historical accuracy of John's Gospel. And since I love the Bible, want to understand and obey it, and am willing to help others do so, too, I am not attempting to be contrary. Rather, I just want to discover your insight regarding a few things. So, please clarify these.
Mark 15:25 says, "It was the third hour when they crucified him." And in John 19: 13 - 18, Jesus is crucified after the sixth hour. How are both times possible? Also, in Mt, Mk and Lk, Jesus "cleanses the Temple" during the last week of his life. However, in John's Gospel this event takes place early in his ministry (as recorded in John 2.)
Other examples can be made, but help with these would be appreciated. And, I am aware of the theory that states that Jesus cleansed the temple twice. This, however, seems unlikely. John simply uses history differently than the other Gospels. Still, I would like your take on this. Thank you.

At May 02, 2013, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Greetings Jim --

Cut to the chase, we still use the Roman day, with a 12 midnight and a 12 noon, day starting at night. Odd, doesn't it seem?

Jews started the day at sundown. Odd, also.

John use using the Roman system, and Mark the Jewish. So Mark's very early at the Sanhedrin is Luke's daybreak; John's Roman 6th hour was 6 am, before Pilate; Mark's Jewish 3rd hour was 9am, 3 hours after sunup (12 hour clock starting from sunup/down, rather than Roman's midnight noon.) This is pretty well known stuff, not some ad hoc invention. Take another look at the chart, above. It's laid out there.

John is silent about the cleansing of that week. It would have occurred between Jn 20:19 and :20. Why is he silent? Well, not everything can be said, of course. Of course, silence is not contradiction. And total agreement of point of view indicates collusion of witnesses. These are obvious exegetical principles.

There are lots of things we don't know, aren't told, and don't understand. I'm looking now at God's harshness, in 1Sam. We are pawns. Somehow, this is love. I don't get it.


At August 17, 2014, Anonymous Anonymous said...

The Exact date Christ was crucified is fairly easy to calculate, there really is no need for so many varied opinions.

According to the 69 Weeks prophecy found in Daniel 9:24-26; the only plausible years of Christ's crucifixion are 32 AD or 33 AD.

This is due to the fact that Xerxes was assassinated in the fall of 465 BC. This would make the 20th Year of Artaxerxes' reign, the year of the decree beginning the 69 Weeks (Nehemiah 2), 445 BC or 444 BC.

Therefore, a 31 AD date for the crucifixion is too early as this would point to 466 BC as the year Artaxerxes took the throne which isn't possible as his father Xerxes had not yet been assassinated.

Likewise, a 34 AD date is not feasible (too late) because this would point to a 463 BC date as the year Artaxerxes took the throne which would leave a pretty significant gap unaccounted for.

So this leaves us with two options for the conclusion of the 69 Weeks prophecy and the year Christ was crucified, 32 AD or 33 AD.

From here it's pretty simple. Christ rose on "the third day". We know that the Feasts of the Lord in Leviticus 23 are God's appointed times and that they were/will be fulfilled by Christ in order, and on the very day. So we know Christ rose on the Feast of First Fruits which is always on Sunday (the "morrow after the weekly sabbath").

When we research dates for the Passover based on the Julian calendar, we find that it was on Monday, April 14, 32 AD and Friday, April 3, 33 AD. A Monday Passover does not fit the crucifixion and resurrection scriptures nor would it fulfill the Feast of First Fruits.

Check dates here:

OR calculate based on a formula:

Based on the above information, it is fairly evident that Christ was crucified in 33 AD. Daniel's 69 Weeks Prophecy began on March 5, 444 BC and ended 173,880 days later on March 30, 33 AD - the Triumphal Entry - four days before Passover, Friday, April 3, 33 AD.

At February 12, 2015, Blogger joshua hugill said...

I believe he cleansed the temple twice. Some clarification can be found in knowing the target audiences of each gospel acct- Matthew to Hebrew believers, mark was peters account, Luke was a Greek and compiled many accounts together, and John was largely concerned with the identity of Jesus as deity in the flesh and makes a lot of sense with his later epistles dealing with Gnosticism.

At February 16, 2015, Blogger Jack H said...

Another take is that Matthew wrote to the Jews, Mark to the Romans, Luke to the Greeks and John to all mankind.


At March 19, 2015, Blogger Jack H said...

A question was asked about whether April 9, 32 ad was a Wednesday. Much contradiction on these sorts of points. I did this work before there was an internet, and simply don't remember my source. But this gives the same result:


At March 01, 2016, Anonymous Anonymous said...

This is a very confusing topic as there seems to be a problem among every theory. Nothing that I have seen so far is exact. I think Thursday makes the most sense for me with either a 32 or 33 AD year.

I think the scriptures allow for this since I Corinthians 15:3-4 says that Jesus rose again the third day. The third day had to be Sunday. If we count it and go backwards day one would be Friday. To get the 3 nights I think Thursday makes the most sense.

It does not seem clear at all whether the Sabbath after the crucifixion was the Passover Sabbath or the regular Sabbath or both. Mark seemed to always mention the exact holy day so I am not sure why he would not do that in this case.

I am confused about Jesus entry into Bethany and the Triumphal entry following. If Sunday was the Triumphal entry Christ's death had to be on Thursday following the order of events given in Mark 11 and Mark 14. The supper at Simon's happened 2 days before the Passover not 6 days before. John was simply stating where it happened because after that he does not mention events in Bethany. This means that there was a supper on Tuesday and then the last supper would have been on Wednesday. From what I have read Galileans had a Passover meal a day before the Judaeans. I also read they reckoned the days differently. Considering about 260,500 lambs had to be slain they may have killed them on both the 13th and 14th. Galileans would have the feast on the evening after the 13th. The scripture is clear that Jesus and his disciples had a Passover meal and the events of the meal point to that. I think it would be wrong to take this any other way then being a Passover meal.

My confusion is in John where it tells us that on the next day after Jesus arrived in Bethany was the Triumphal entry. He could not have arrived on Saturday. The only way to solve this is move the dates back to where the entry was on Saturday making a Wednesday crucifixion. Could the people carry palm branches on the Sabbath?

Wednesday seems like too many nights. Examples in Esther 4 and 1 Chronicles 10 seem to show that 3 days does not have to be literal 72 hours. You cannot arrive on the 3rd day and it be literal time.

At March 02, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

Indeed it is confusing, eg., Jesus says, three days and three nights... Check starting here

for a thorough harmonization of the timeline for that period.


At March 20, 2016, Anonymous David said...

In the Gregorian calendar, Passover, which always occurs on Nisan 14, in 32 A.D. was on April 12, which was on a Monday, and in 33 A.D. it was on April 1, which was on a Friday. Thus it is readily seen that 32 A.D. cannot be a possible date for the crucifixion. There is no way to reconcile a Monday crucifixion with clear Biblical facts about the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ which place his resurrection as occurring on the first day of the week, Sunday. Those who claim that Nisan 14 was on a Wednesday in 32 A.D. have failed to take into account the Julian to Gregorian conversion and have transposed a Julian date onto a Gregorian calendar and have come up with the wrong day of the week. [ This site also notes that the US Astro center support the above dates/day for Passover in 32 and 33.

At March 20, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

"this site"...? *This* site? You are a little too ready with "readily". I have already pointed out these problems. Luke's dating, Herod's death, the Essene and Qumran calendars, the later rabbinic interference with Passover: problematic.


At March 28, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

Something useful here.

At August 28, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

The Jews followed a 7 day week, but only the Sabbath was named. The Romans followed an 8 day week, A-H. There is no reason to believe the Jews coordinated their weekly calendar with the Romans. The 7 day Roman week was not codified until Constantine in 321 AD. As a result, it is pointless to project a 7 day Julian calendar back in time to determine what day of the week in Julian time was 14 Nisan 32 AD. Even if the calculated Julian date based on a 7 day week was Monday, that says nothing about was day of the week 14 Nisan was to the Jews at the time

At August 28, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

Sam -- well, yes and no. Regardless of the Romans, the Jews had a Sabbath and a Preparation Day. We can for our own reference project back our seven day cycle, no matter any other system. Neither Romans nor Hebrews had a "Wednesday". This need not befuddle us.

At August 29, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

My point is that it is futile to assign a Julian "Monday" to Nisan 14, because "Monday" was not even in existence yet, and there is no evidence that the Jews synchronized their 7 day week with the Roman 8 day week. All we can know is that the Jews were following their 7 day week, not the Julian cadence of the 8 day week at the time. Hence, I believe that the year of Crucifixion is 32 AD, Nisan 14 was the day, He spent 3 full days in the grave, and was resurrected on the first day of the Jewish week at that time.

At August 29, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

In other words Jack, how certain are you that our current 7 day week is synchronous with the Jewish 7 day week in the first century? If you know of any link or evidence that the Jews 7 day calendar was synchronized with the Julian 7 day calendar which was not even in effect at the time, I would love to see it!

At August 30, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

Jack, if you are honest about this, you know there is no evidence of synchronization of the Jewish calendar with the Roman weekly calendar in the day of the Savior. The ironic thing, is that I agree with you, the year of crucifixion was 32 AD. Check this out:

At September 02, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

Greetings again Sam --

I think you're putting too much effort into this. Of course there's no "evidence" for the continuity of the days of the week. Of what could such evidence possibly comprise? Daily tic marks on the side of a very long wall. It would have to be a daily chronicle multiply attested under a strict monastic or rabbinical system... some sort of anointed time-sect. As it were.

On the other hand, we have only to count by sevens back any number of days and we'll know what the day of the week it is. In that sense, whole societies have kept track of the days of the week. Which counts as evidence for contiguity. Is it plausible that the Jews of Jerusalem and of Babylon, after the Diaspora, lost count, and their respective calendars split off from one another? We, you and I, would be aware of such a controversy. None such exists.

There are many problems with what I've done. I am not dogmatic about it. But we know the season, if not even the month (given the Hebrews intercalary month, Adar I or II, whichever); was Passover observed in March? -- April? Even though we know or may know the day of the week the full moon fell upon -- by counting backward by sevens -- it was the Sanhedrin who made the political and social decision of then Passover was observed. Hence modern Jews did indeed change the day of observations.

Romans don't have a lot to do with it. Their eight day week may as well be Mayan. It is Jewish John who name days, Sabbath, Preparation Day.... Likewise, the Julian calendar -- not a deeply meaningful correlation, other than that all pre-Gregorian dates are Julian. Thus Shakespeare and Cervantes died on the same day, but several weeks apart.

Take a look at my 'Jesus as Human Being' of an in-depth examination of these problems. I name dates and days of the week up to the Crucifixion, and then I stop, because online tools are not just unhelpful, but contradictory.


At September 03, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

Jack, thanks for the reply.....we can count back by sevens to Jesus day, but in my view it means nothing as to what the day of the Jewish week was at the time. We know that their 7 day week did not correlate to the Roman 8 day week, which was the weekly cadence the Romans were using at the time. The best evidence is what the Gospels claimed at the time, not what a calculated Julian day would have been going back by counting days from my view it is futile to forecast the days of Crucifixion week with that method, unless a rationale can be given as to why Jews at that time would be using a seven day Julian week to identify the days of the week

At September 03, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

Greetings again. You're stressing the Romans, while I am utterly disregarding them, save for names of week days, and a general reference point re Julian calendar. Let's disregard our Roman-derived day-names. We can agree about the Sabbath being Day Seven of a seven day week. All other names are irrelevant. Day One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, and Sabbath. Agreed?

The weekly Preparation day is our Friday. It is not Friday, or Prepday -- that's just what we call it. It is day six. Day two is not Moon day, or Monday, or Lunes, or any of the other cultural names as may be. It may not even be counted as day two, per some given culture, as the ancient Romans of the Republic (although even with them there are indications of two separate traditions -- eight and seven day weeks, concurrent, preceding meaningful contact with the Semitic tradition ... or is it to be called 'Babylonian'? -- scholars argue about it.)

So if we ignore the words, and use the numbers, we count back by sevens and arrive at day one, or two, or seven, of a week in a month of a year. The name of the month is arbitrary, as is the number of the year, per a given calendar. But since we CAN, via astronomy, correlate a moon-phase with a unit of seven, we can know in what year a spring-equinox full moon occurred on or around a Wednesday -- day four, midweek. Nisan 14, per the Torah. Passover.

What has the Julian calendar to do with this? Nothing at all, save context. If the context displeases you, no matter, it is incidental. The chart I worked out spells all of this out, via proof texts.

I use day-names because John does. Not Roman. Jewish.


At September 04, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

Jack, again, thanks for the reply and honest discussion!

Your construct assumes that our current 7 day cadence aligns with the 7 day cadence of the Jewish calendar in Jesus' day, and I completely disagree with that premise. There is just no evidence to support that Constantine would have used the Jewish 7 day weekly cadence when he imposed a 7 day calendar in 321 AD, which would have had to happen for your conclusion to be true. He would far more likely have based his 7 day cadence on the preexisting Roman 8 day cadence when deciding what the first day of the Julian week would be from that point going forward. Our current 7 day cadence is absolutely tied to the Constantine's calendar, a Julian calendar, hence the Julian calendar is relevant to the 7 day cadence we have today. Your assumption that you can count the days back from today to arrive at the Jewish day of the week has no basis in fact......implicit in your assumption is that the Jews were using the same 7 day cadence we use today, which is completely without support historically or otherwise. The first day of the week to the 1st century Jews is most likely not the first day of the Julian week, unless the calendar imposed by Constantine in 321 AD based its 7 day weekly cadence on the 7 day Jewish cadence, which I believe is not likely at all......why would he do that? The Romans were interested in erasing Judaism altogether, so why would he use the 7 day Jewish weekly cadence as the basis for his new calendar? It is far more likely that he would have used the 8 day Roman nundinal calendar when determining what day would be the first day of the week.

You can count by 7's all the way back to be sure, but your underlying assumption is that Constantine used the same 7 day cadence that the 1st century Jews were using, and that is just not supportable or even believable!

The result is that if you count back by 7's, Nisan 14 in 32 AD would have been a Julian Monday.....that does not in any way "prove" that the Crucifixion could not have occurred in 32 AD, because you are assuming that Monday would have been "day 2" in the Jewish week. That is only true if Constantine adopted the Jewish 7 day cadence when he imposed a Julian Roman 7 day calendar, and there is no evidence that this occurred at all. And even if he did, the first day of the week in Jesus day would have been different for the Jews and Romans in that time since the Romans were using a 8 day calendar. The 7 day calendar of Constantine >300 years later is completely irrelevant to the 7 day calendar of the 1st century Jews. I believe the error is you are mixing the apples of the Julian cadence and with the oranges of the Jewish 1st century weekly cadence.....

At September 04, 2016, Blogger Sam said...

In other words, why would Constantine think to himself, "I'm going to make a 7 day calendar, and go back 200 years to a Jewish calendar that is not even being used now, and supports a religion we want to eradicate, to establish the first day of the week for my new calendar"?

He far more likely would have said, "My new seven day calendar will begin with the same first day of the week that we Romans are now using in our 8 day calendar."

The second option is a more likely scenario, and renders meaningless any attempt to count back by 7's to establish what day of the week by Julian counts the Jews would have been using in the first century.

My apologies for not being able to explain more clearly!

At September 04, 2016, Blogger Sam said...


If I asked you what day of the week it was on 14 Nisan 32 AD, you might reply "the second day" by counting back by Julian 7's. If I replied that your Julian "second day" happened to be the "fourth day" of the Jewish week, how would you disprove my claim?

At September 05, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...

Greetings again --

I think at this point we just have to disagree. If Constantine, or whomver, shifted to a seven day week, in concordance with the Hebrew system, parsimony suggests he would adopt the meaning as well as the number of the days. Evidence? What controversy or inconsistency can you point to, to justify the anomaly you seem to suppose? Occam's Razor, sir.

I'm perfectly fine if your skewed-days is correct, and somehow came to coincide, Hebrew with Christian, at some future, unknown, date. It would simplify -- indeed, resolve -- the problem I discuss in "Jesus as Human Being". I want it to be so. But your emphasis on a supposed adherence to or interference by the Roman custom is less elegant than the existing problem. I don't have to prove or support anything in this regard. It is on you to find the resolution of an ancient supposed disagreement that somehow became resolved. I simply suppose that at whatever point the calendar was changed, it was changed to agree with the Sabbath or Sunday of the Bible. Why else make such a shift.

It seems blaringly obvious. But not to you. No problem. It is by disagreement that we find who is approved.

But one thing to consider. When various countries switched from Julian to Gregorian, absolutely all of them maintained the contiguity of the weekdays, changing only the cylindrical number. Sunday followed Saturday, or Monday followed Sunday -- whatever the degree. Ten days or whatever were lost, but the week kept rolling along. This seems dispositive.

Re your final point, the First day of any backwards count is always Sunday. The Julian calendar is irrelevant. John 19:31, 20:1. Nothing about the Romans or the Greeks. The Jews, from that time to this, have not lost count of their week. Their Sabbath then until next week's Sabbath is EXACTLY some multiple of SEVEN back or forward.

So please, completely disregard any reference I make at all whatsoever to anything having the slightest implication in regard to any aspect of the Roman system to any measure at all. I care only, in the smallest or greatest degree, about the Hebrew system, and not in the least about the Roman.


At September 05, 2016, Blogger Jack H said...



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